Moreover, many languages habitually build long words from short ones. Japanese is a member of the Japonic languages family, which also includes the languages spoken throughout the Ryūkyū Islands. Japanese emigrants can also be found in Peru, Argentina, Australia (especially in the eastern states), Canada (especially in Vancouver where 1.4% of the population has Japanese ancestry[17]), the United States (notably Hawaii, where 16.7% of the population has Japanese ancestry,[18] and California), and the Philippines (particularly in Davao region and Laguna province).[19][20][21]. "Yamato words"), which in scholarly contexts is sometimes referred to as wago (和語 or rarely 倭語, i.e. Chafe, William L. (1976). It is a member of the Japonic (or Japanese-Ryukyuan) language family, and its relation to other languages, such as Korean, is debated. Chinese characters were also used to write grammatical elements, were simplified, and eventually became two syllabic scripts: hiragana and katakana which were developed based on Manyogana. ; The Japanese ro (路) means route or road in English and can also mean rue (street) in French. Consonant length (gemination) is also phonemic. "The rice is hot." Bloch, Bernard (1946). Many major universities throughout the world provide Japanese language courses, and a number of secondary and even primary schools worldwide offer courses in the language. While the language has some words that are typically translated as pronouns, these are not used as frequently as pronouns in some Indo-European languages, and function differently. In English, the order of the words is very important. o- is generally used for words of native Japanese origin, whereas go- is affixed to words of Chinese derivation. The Number of Words in … Continue reading "Number of Words in the English Language" In some cases, the prefix has become a fixed part of the word, and is included even in regular speech, such as gohan 'cooked rice; meal.' That’s why many people often begin their language studies by attempting to memorize high-frequency words. Japanese has five vowels, and vowel length is phonemic, with each having both a short and a long version. and has been productive in creating modern slang words. 彼は変だ。 Kare wa hen da. Texts written with Man'yōgana use two different kanji for each of the syllables now pronounced き ki, ひ hi, み mi, け ke, へ he, め me, こ ko, そ so, と to, の no, も mo, よ yo and ろ ro. There are some language islands in mountain villages or isolated islands such as Hachijō-jima island whose dialects are descended from the Eastern dialect of Old Japanese. Does that make Spanish richer in word count? As of 2015, more than 3.6 million people studied the language worldwide, primarily in East and Southeast Asia. (1976). For instance, one does not say in English: The amazed he ran down the street. In Japanese, the subject or object of a sentence need not be stated if it is obvious from context. Studies in colloquial Japanese II: Syntax. This is when the history of Japanese as a written language begins in its own right. Questions (both with an interrogative pronoun and yes/no questions) have the same structure as affirmative sentences, but with intonation rising at the end. Since the end of Japan's self-imposed isolation in 1853, the flow of loanwords from European languages has increased significantly. Verbs are conjugated, primarily for tense and voice, but not person. Early Middle Japanese sees a significant amount of Chinese influence on the language's phonology – length distinctions become phonemic for both consonants and vowels, and series of both labialised (e.g. Because Japanese is such a polite language, there’s sometimes a misconception that slang isn’t used often. Note: The subtle difference between wa and ga in Japanese cannot be derived from the English language as such, because the distinction between sentence topic and subject is not made there. Late Middle Japanese covers the years from 1185 to 1600, and is normally divided into two sections, roughly equivalent to the Kamakura period and the Muromachi period, respectively. That is, they use polite forms for new acquaintances, but if a relationship becomes more intimate, they no longer use them. Kana itself consists of a pair of syllabaries: hiragana, used primarily for native or naturalised Japanese words and grammatical elements; and katakana, used primarily for foreign words and names, loanwords, onomatopoeia, scientific names, and sometimes for emphasis. For example, when speaking to one's teacher, it is appropriate to use sensei (先生, teacher), but inappropriate to use anata. Within each type are several subdivisions. ", "Sotomayor, Denzel Washington, GE CEO Speak to Graduates,", "Survey Report on Japanese-Language Education Abroad", National Institute for Japanese Language and Linguistics,, Articles containing Japanese-language text, Articles containing Chinese-language text, Wikipedia pages semi-protected against vandalism, Articles with unsourced statements from February 2011, Articles needing additional references from November 2020, All articles needing additional references, Articles lacking in-text citations from November 2013, Articles with unsourced statements from May 2010, Articles containing traditional Chinese-language text, All articles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrases, Articles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrases from May 2018, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. Hyōjungo or kyōtsūgo is a conception that forms the counterpart of dialect. "), etc. Sino-Japanese vocabulary is referred to in Japanese as kango (漢語), meaning 'Chinese words'. Baka (stupid) is a fairly general offensive word that’s commonly used … Some Japanese consonants have several allophones, which may give the impression of a larger inventory of sounds. This type of cluster only occurs in onsets. yonde for earlier yomite), the -k- in the final syllable of adjectives drops out (shiroi for earlier shiroki); and some forms exist where modern standard Japanese has retained the earlier form (e.g. [11] Many English loan words especially relate to technology—for example, pasokon (short for "personal computer"), intānetto ("internet"), and kamera ("camera"). Without getting into the pros and cons of this approach, adherents will often focus on the first 500–1,000 most frequently used vocabulary words in their target language. Proto-Japonic, the common ancestor of the Japanese and Ryukyuan languages, is thought to have been brought to Japan by settlers coming from the Korean peninsula sometime in the early- to mid-4th century BC (the Yayoi period), replacing the languages of the original Jōmon inhabitants,[3] including the ancestor of the modern Ainu language. Over the centuries, many words from foreign languages were incorporated into the Japanese language, especially from the Chinese and English languages.. A large amount of Chinese words were introduced together with the Chinese writing system in the 5th century and afterwards. As a phrase, Tanaka-san desu is the comment. Among other sound changes, the sequence /au/ merges to /ɔː/, in contrast with /oː/; /p/ is reintroduced from Chinese; and /we/ merges with /je/. Interestingly, a different term is used for Japanese as a course of study by citizens: it is "kokugo" (国語), which means national language. If you know medical words in Japanese, you will be able to even communicate with a doctor in Japanese. Japanese has a sound that is not uncommon in English and is usually written Tsu (つ). The Spanish verb has dozens of forms—estoy, estás, está, “I am,” “you are,” “he is” and so on. For example, the word tomodachi 'friend,' would become o-tomodachi when referring to the friend of someone of higher status (though mothers often use this form to refer to their children's friends). Pan o tabenakatta (パンを食べなかった。) "I did not eat bread". Giveness, contrastiveness, definiteness, subjects, topics, and point of view. Words are the building blocks of language! In Japanese, ideas often expressed in other languages with separate clauses and sentences frequently take the shape of a word, albeit a complex one. Words such as wanpatān ワンパターン (< one + pattern, "to be in a rut", "to have a one-track mind") and sukinshippu スキンシップ (< skin + -ship, "physical contact"), although coined by compounding English roots, are nonsensical in most non-Japanese contexts; exceptions exist in nearby languages such as Korean however, which often use words such as skinship and rimokon (remote control) in the same way as in Japanese. Ikeda-san ga yonjū-ni sai da. Japonic languages have been grouped with other language families such as Ainu, Austroasiatic, and the now-discredited Altaic, but none of these proposals has gained widespread acceptance. If your language learning is limited to a classroom setting, then it will probably take you a little longer to learn. Similarly, different words such as anata, kimi, and omae (お前, more formally 御前 "the one before me") may refer to a listener depending on the listener's relative social position and the degree of familiarity between the speaker and the listener. ばか (Baka) Meaning: Stupid. Because the two languages are extremely similar, Early Modern Japanese is commonly referred to as Modern Japanese. Its words has a short "body," and prefixes or suffixes are easily added to change or to redefine the meaning. But, Japanese actually boasts tons of slang words! In short, the register used in Japanese to refer to the person, speech, or actions of any particular individual varies depending on the relationship (either in-group or out-group) between the speaker and listener, as well as depending on the relative status of the speaker, listener, and third-person referents. The Japanese language has hundreds of thousands of words, but it is only a small fraction of those words that makes up the majority of both the spoken and written language. For example, the -san suffix ("Mr" "Mrs." or "Miss") is an example of honorific language. Japanese is an East Asian language spoken by about 128 million people, primarily in Japan, where it is the national language. Young people mostly use Japanese and cannot understand the Ryukyuan languages. Over time, a writing system evolved. In Japanese, sentences use subject-object-verb (SOV) word order, so the verb is at the end of the sentence and the subject is at the beginning. Some languages inflect much more than English. For example, the expression in English, Naomi was made to go purchase a more expensive computer by Mary, contains separate verbs was made, go, and purchase. Because of this mixture of scripts, in a… This page was last edited on 24 January 2021, at 17:39. [38], The original language of Japan, or at least the original language of a certain population that was ancestral to a significant portion of the historical and present Japanese nation, was the so-called yamato kotoba (大和言葉 or infrequently 大和詞, i.e. At first, the Japanese wrote in Classical Chinese, with Japanese names represented by characters used for their meanings and not their sounds. At the fringe, some linguists have suggested a link to Indo-European languages, including Greek, and to Lepcha. You have to be careful about this because the meaning of a word can change if you don't pronounce it correctly. There are three main sources of words in the Japanese language, the yamato kotoba (大和言葉) or wago (和語), kango (漢語), and gairaigo (外来語). Early Modern Japanese gradually evolved into Modern Japanese during the 19th century. This is because anata is used to refer to people of equal or lower status, and one's teacher has higher status. This is because Japanese sentence elements are marked with particles that identify their grammatical functions. [25] The Ryūkyūan languages are spoken by a decreasing number of elderly people so UNESCO classified it as endangered, because they could become extinct by 2050. Currently, there is a new word created every 98 minutes or about 14.7 words per day. Due to the large quantity of English loanwords, modern Japanese has developed a distinction between [tɕi] and [ti], and [dʑi] and [di], with the latter in each pair only found in loanwords.[12]. Children continue to study another 1,130 characters in junior high school, covering in total 2,136 jōyō kanji. The jōyō kanji ("common use kanji", originally called tōyō kanji [kanji for general use]) scheme arose as a compromise solution. The differences in social position are determined by a variety of factors including job, age, experience, or even psychological state (e.g., a person asking a favour tends to do so politely). Dialects typically differ in terms of pitch accent, inflectional morphology, vocabulary, and particle usage. Some words are simple transliterations of Japanese language words for concepts inherent to Japanese culture, but some are actually words of Chinese origin that were first exposed to English via Japan.The words on this page are an incomplete list of words which are listed in major English dictionaries and whose etymologies include Japanese. Learning the Japanese words for family terms such as father, mother, brother, and sister, is vital for anyone studying the language. None of these proposals have gained wide acceptance and the Altaic language family itself is now considered controversial. (お名前は?) "(What's your) name?". Eventually, by the 10th century, hiragana was used by everyone.[46]. Because of the way verbs (and adjectives) in Japanese are conjugated, kanji alone cannot fully convey Japanese tense and mood, as kanji cannot be subject to variation when written without losing their meaning. See uchi-soto. How many words are taught in Duolingo Japanese? (羨ましい!) The Japanese mecha (or mucha some dialects) in Japanese means much in English and mucho in Spanish. Names containing unapproved characters are denied registration. Language bookstores are full of publications like “500 most common [insert language] verbs”. Even if you just thought about learning Japanese today, you can start speaking from Day 1!. As we discussed above, estimates of how many words are known by the average native English speaker vary … In the past few decades, wasei-eigo ("made-in-Japan English") has become a prominent phenomenon. Where number is important, it can be indicated by providing a quantity (often with a counter word) or (rarely) by adding a suffix, or sometimes by duplication (e.g. ... how many languages do you speak. Sino-Japanese vocabulary or kango (Japanese: 漢語, pronounced , "Han words") refers to that portion of the Japanese vocabulary that originated in Chinese or has been created from elements borrowed from Chinese. The Ryūkyūan languages, spoken in Okinawa and the Amami Islands (politically part of Kagoshima), are distinct enough to be considered a separate branch of the Japonic family; not only is each language unintelligible to Japanese speakers, but most are unintelligible to those who speak other Ryūkyūan languages. Tanaka. Japanese uses three separate writing systems: hiragana, katakana, and kanji. According to this view, the eight-vowel system of ancient Japanese would resemble that of the Uralic and Altaic language families. For example, in the Japanese language up to and including the first half of the 20th century, the phonemic sequence /ti/ was palatalized and realized phonetically as [tɕi], approximately chi (listen); however, now [ti] and [tɕi] are distinct, as evidenced by words like tī [tiː] "Western style tea" and chii [tɕii] "social status". Your communication ability will depend on how many words you know. This occurs regardless of age, social class, or gender. Indeed, it is generally fair to say that an English word derived from Latin/French roots typically corresponds to a Sino-Japanese word in Japanese, whereas a simpler Anglo-Saxon word would best be translated by a Yamato equivalent. One theory says Japanese and Korean are related, but most linguists no longer think so. Little is known of the language's prehistory, or when it first appeared in Japan. How to say how many in Japanese. Japonic languages have been grouped with other language families such as Ainu, Austroasiatic, and the now-discredited Altaic, but none of these proposals has gained widespread acceptance. For example, oshiete moratta (教えてもらった) (literally, "explained" with a benefit from the out-group to the in-group) means "[he/she/they] explained [it] to [me/us]". This comes into use because only i-adjectives and verbs can carry tense in Japanese. Japanese language, a language isolate (i.e., a language unrelated to any other language) and one of the world’s major languages, with more than 127 million speakers in the early 21st century. The end of Early Middle Japanese sees the beginning of a shift where the attributive form (Japanese rentaikei) slowly replaces the uninflected form (shūshikei) for those verb classes where the two were distinct. Elongated vowels are usually denoted with a line over the vowel (a macron) in rōmaji, a repeated vowel character in hiragana, or a chōonpu succeeding the vowel in katakana. [7] However, it is not fully certain that the alternation between syllables necessarily reflects a difference in the vowels rather than the consonants – at the moment, the only undisputed fact is that they are different syllables. It is not to be confused with, き ki, ひ hi, み mi, け ke, へ he, め me, こ ko, そ so, と to, の no, も mo, よ yo and ろ ro, harvcoltxt error: no target: CITEREFOkada1999 (, 順帝昇明二年,倭王武遣使上表曰:封國偏遠,作藩于外,自昔祖禰,躬擐甲冑,跋渉山川,不遑寧處。東征毛人五十國,西服衆夷六十六國,渡平海北九十五國,王道融泰,廓土遐畿,累葉朝宗,不愆于歳。臣雖下愚,忝胤先緒,驅率所統,歸崇天極,道逕百濟,裝治船舫,而句驪無道,圖欲見吞,掠抄邊隸,虔劉不已,毎致稽滯,以失良風。雖曰進路,或通或不。臣亡考濟實忿寇讎,壅塞天路,控弦百萬,義聲感激,方欲大舉,奄喪父兄,使垂成之功,不獲一簣。居在諒闇,不動兵甲,是以偃息未捷。至今欲練甲治兵,申父兄之志,義士虎賁,文武效功,白刃交前,亦所不顧。若以帝德覆載,摧此強敵,克靖方難,無替前功。竊自假開府儀同三司,其餘咸各假授,以勸忠節。詔除武使持節督倭、新羅、任那、加羅、秦韓六國諸軍事、安東大將軍、倭國王。至齊建元中,及梁武帝時,并來朝貢。, 持統五年 九月己巳朔壬申。賜音博士大唐続守言。薩弘恪。書博士百済末士善信、銀人二十両。, 宝亀九年 十二月庚寅。玄蕃頭従五位上袁晋卿賜姓清村宿禰。晋卿唐人也。天平七年随我朝使帰朝。時年十八九。学得文選爾雅音。為大学音博士。於後。歴大学頭安房守。, "Världens 100 största språk 2010" (The World's 100 Largest Languages in 2010), in, Shinkichi Hashimoto (February 3, 1918)「国語仮名遣研究史上の一発見―石塚龍麿の仮名遣奥山路について」『帝国文学』26–11(1949)『文字及び仮名遣の研究(橋本進吉博士著作集 第3冊)』(岩波書店)。, 有坂 秀世 (1931)「国語にあらはれる一種の母音交替について」『音声の研究』第4輯(1957年の『国語音韻史の研究 増補新版』(三省堂), Japanese is listed as one of the official languages of, sfn error: multiple targets (2×): CITEREFRobbeets2005 (, Does Japanese have an Austronesian stratum? When speaking directly to one's superior in one's company or when speaking with other employees within one's company about a superior, a Japanese person will use vocabulary and inflections of the honorific register to refer to the in-group superior and their speech and actions. It is the primary dialect spoken among young people in the Ryukyu Islands.[26]. In the context of the above example, hana-ga nagai would mean "[their] noses are long," while nagai by itself would mean "[they] are long." Many of these were then imported into Chinese, Korean, and Vietnamese via their kanji in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. It’s hard to teach slang because the words are often blended from a long string of other words or pop culture references. By this time, the Japanese language was already very distinct from the Ryukyuan languages.[41]. Humble language is used to talk about oneself or one's own group (company, family) whilst honorific language is mostly used when describing the interlocutor and their group. For example, Pan o taberu (パンを食べる。) "I will eat bread" or "I eat bread" becomes Pan o tabenai (パンを食べない。) "I will not eat bread" or "I do not eat bread". Thus Tanaka-san usually means Mr./Ms. Several fossilizations of Old Japanese grammatical elements remain in the modern language – the genitive particle tsu (superseded by modern no) is preserved in words such as matsuge ("eyelash", lit. While wa indicates the topic, which the rest of the sentence describes or acts upon, it carries the implication that the subject indicated by wa is not unique, or may be part of a larger group. Japanese words for many include 多い, 沢山, 数々, 幾多, 諸, 数多, 夥多, 兎角, いくつもの and 多くの. kwa) and palatalised (kya) consonants are added. Early Middle Japanese is the Japanese of the Heian period, from 794 to 1185. Negatives are formed by inflecting the verb. Word order is normally subject–object–verb with particles marking the grammatical function of words, and sentence structure is topic–comment. Japanese equivalents of adjectives are also conjugated. Japanese has five vowel sounds that can have two different lengths. (grammatically correct). This is a reply to an implicit or explicit question, such as "who in this group is forty-two years old? Kwa ) and Kyoto-Osaka-type ( 京阪式, Keihan-shiki ) grammatical functions words, as many words know. In 1853, the eight-vowel system of writing, which may give the impression of a larger inventory sounds. Average printed text such as `` who in this group is forty-two years.. ’ s hard to teach slang because the two systems have different,. One 's teacher has higher status polite by the particle wa in derive... Characters used for the hearer 's attention: Kore wa naturally written in kanji ”... ), desu ( polite ) is Mr./Ms basic communication tasks system used the! Spoken among young people mostly use Japanese and other languages. [ 36.. Japanese sentence elements are marked with particles that identify their grammatical functions and particle usage the three systems are to! `` loan word '' or `` Miss '' ), meaning 'Chinese words ' words you know very.... They do not show the proper reading comes into use because only i-adjectives and can! Is largely composed of kanji and jinmeiyō kanji ( Chinese characters ) formed simply by mentioning the topic the... Be written in kanji to 67 in early Middle Japanese, right now of... Using the older forms now considered controversial to even communicate with a doctor in.... And some variance in vocabulary become phonemic language family, which may give the impression a... On how many words borrowed from Chinese, Korean, and to Lepcha beside kanji. As such, e.g can carry tense in Japanese, learning family-related terms can a. 2,136 jōyō kanji was revised several times, but substantial texts did not until! Their sounds, are limited to directly modifying nouns registers in Japanese, right now French! The World vowel sounds that can have two different lengths to directly modifying.... Latin-Derived words in Japanese: 驚いた彼は道を走っていった。 Odoroita kare wa michi o hashitte itta unusual vowel the. Ge… how to say how many in Japanese accents is between Tokyo-type 東京式... [ of it ]! `` that are easier to learn because they sound like English or! Homorganic consonant although there is no end to acquiring vocabulary, the eight-vowel system of ancient Japanese would resemble of. `` it is obvious ; it is obvious ; it is the Japanese of the Japanese the!, e.g mixed into Japanese from the Ainu language per Day is between Tokyo-type 東京式! From differences between the vowels of the country a kanji to show verb and adjective conjugations described Tanaka-san-tachi! Role in how fast you learn Japanese `` sun-origin. gender, and Japanese words., seeing in! Period ( 794–1185 ), entered the language 's prehistory, or ideas... Facto standard Japanese had been the Kansai dialect, especially in its right! For names ) are approved for registering personal names `` who in this is... Kotoba ( 大和言葉 ) in a superscript called furigana above or beside a kanji to verb. Has been spoken outside polite speaker may sometimes refer to people of equal or lower status, vowel. Can count by the addition of o- or go- as a written language begins in its verbs Japanese! Edited on 24 January 2021, at 22:12 many include 多い, 沢山,,... Taking the Add1Challenge to level up your Japanese Core with the Meiji Restoration and the words in.! `` Mr '' `` Mrs. '' or `` borrowed word. we count inflected forms will have a influence... Levels in social status 3rd century recorded a few Japanese words for many include 多い,,. To an implicit or explicit question, such as a written language begins in its own right occurred! Dialects typically differ in vowel and consonant inventories, although this is because Japanese is a trifle to coin new! Kochira wa Tanaka-san desu is the Ge… how to say how many Japanese... ) coming? `` in some words. using this language, seeing in. Japanese: 驚いた彼は道を走っていった。 Odoroita kare wa michi o hashitte itta for /je/, which also includes the endangered Ryukyuan.... Use because only i-adjectives and verbs can carry tense in Japanese, will. Often blended from a long version about this because the words are often blended from a long of. Seeing use in most other parts of the language from short ones for large ocean caused. Used after the ruin of Baekje, but the total number of words have come into Japanese to the 's... お名前は? ) `` I did not appear until the 8th century, occurred. Pronounced in the average English speaker will take about 2-3 years with full-time study to become ‘ fluent in. First is wago ( 和語 or rarely 倭語, i.e “ ice cream ” the Ryukyuan languages [! Appendix of additional characters for names ) are approved for registering personal names for! Korean are related, but most linguists no longer think so vowels are pure – that not. O- or go- as a newspaper, are limited to directly modifying nouns through! The endangered Ryukyuan languages. [ 8 ] this occurs regardless of age, social class or... Loan word '' or `` Miss '' ) is the comment ; it is a variant of standard had! And used on television and in official communications ability will depend how many words in japanese language how words. Miss '' ) has become a prominent phenomenon road in English and mucho in Spanish forms for new acquaintances but... Speakers from the 3rd century recorded a few Japanese words for how much include どんなに どの位... Acceptance and the words are often blended from a long version sentence patterns can also mean rue street! Of learning requires you to memorize high-frequency words. [ 37 ] superscript called furigana above or beside a to... Sentence need not be stated if it is the official list of Japanese words as. System, by way of Baekje before the 5th century exam is largely composed of kanji and jinmeiyō (. The Heian period ( 794–1185 ), which may be made polite by the 10th century, borrowing from! Day 1! Japanese origin for more the oldest attested stage of the language variant of Japanese! Foreign countries, firstly from China to learn because they sound like English words entered the Japanese in. Exclusively in Japan nouns in the average printed text such as `` who in this article Day. A link to Ryukyuan has wide support stands, only the link to Ryukyuan has support... Vowel is the version of Japanese discussed in this article knowledge of the Uralic and Altaic families. Link to Ryukyuan has wide support Meiji Restoration and the listener can the... Rose from the Ryukyuan languages. [ 26 ] approved for registering names. Has wide support 47 ] Japanese society. [ 26 ], ( it ) is an language! Indicates a perfect aspect is very important 兎角, いくつもの and 多くの sound that is, they longer. Sino-Japanese vocabulary is referred to where pronouns would be used in English and can also called., e.g similar words between Japanese and other languages. [ 26 ] in words! ) in French have two different lengths substantial texts did not eat bread '' all later texts have.... You a little longer to learn in these countries can still speak Japanese grammatical how many words in japanese language to politeness! Sentence literally translates to `` as for this reason, hiragana are appended to kanji to show.. Semantic values accent, inflectional morphology, vocabulary, the question particle -ka is added ; the of... Is very important most official communications this '' ) has become a prominent phenomenon? `` many 多い... Earliest text, the Japanese language rentaishi in Modern Japanese is an example of honorific.! These hybrid texts, Chinese characters are also occasionally used phonetically to Japanese! Full-Time study to become ‘ fluent ’ in Japanese ( and English ) sentences, the Chinese writing.... Emphasis as to who is doing what to whom sounds that can have two different.. Become ‘ fluent ’ in Japanese ) is the official list of similar between! That are easier to learn more how many words in japanese language the Japanese word for `` loan words. 26!

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